Assignment 1.0 – Vocabulary
Define each of the following terms.
1. Physics
2. Hypothesis
3. Scientific Law
4. Scientific Theory
5. Measurement
6. Precision
7. Accuracy
8. Independent Variable
9. Dependent Variable
Assignment 1.1 – Mathematics & Physics
Short Answer: Answer each question in the space provided. Write or print clearly. IF I CAN’T READ IT, IT’S WRONG.
1. Why is mathematics important to science?
2. What is the SI system?
3. How are base units and derived units related?
4. Is a scientific method one set of clearly defined steps?
5. The density of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
A) Give a possible metric unit for density.
B) Is the unit for density a base unit or a derived unit?
Problems: Solve each of the following problems. Show all work. Circle your answer expressed with the correct number of significant figures and units.
6. Convert each of the following measurements to meters.
A) 42.3 cm
B) 6.2 pm
C) 21 km
D) 0.023 mm
E) 214 mm
F) 57 nm
7. Rank the following mass measurements from least to greatest: 11.6 mg, 1021 mg, 0.000006 kg, 0.31 mg.
8. State the number of significant figures in each of the following numbers.
A) 0.00003 ____________
B) 64.01 ____________
C) 80.001 ____________
D) 0.720 ____________
E) 2.40 x 10^{6} ____________
F) 6 x 10^{8} ____________
G) 4.07 x 10^{16} ____________
9. Add or subtract as indicated. Round your answer to the correct number of significant figures and include the proper unit(s).
A) 16.2 m + 5.008 m + 13.48 m ________________________
B) 5.006 m + 12.0077 m + 8.0084 m ________________________
C) 78.05 cm^{2} – 32.046 cm^{2} ________________________
D) 15.07 kg = 12.0 kg ________________________
10. Multiply or divide as indicated. Round your answer to the correct number of significant figures and include the proper unit(s).
A) (6.2 x 10^{18} m) · (4.7 x 10^{10} m) ________________________
B) (5.6 x 10^{7} m) / (2.8 x 10^{12} s) ________________________
C) 8.1 x 10^{4} km) · (1.6 x 10^{3} km) ________________________
D) (6.5 x 10^{5} kg) / (3.4 x 10^{3} m^{3}) ________________________
11. The force due to gravity is F = mg where g = 9.80 m/s^{2}.
A) Find the force due to gravity on a 41.63 kg object.
B) The force due to gravity on an object is 632 kg·m/s^{2}. What is its mass?
Assignment 1.2 – Measurement
Short Answer: Answer each question in the space provided. Write or print clearly. IF I CAN’T READ IT, IT’S WRONG.
1. Suppose your lab partner recorded a measurement as 100 g.
A) Why is it difficult to tell the number of significant figures in this measurement?
B) How can the number of significant figures in such a number be made clear?
2. Give the name for each of the following multiples of the meter.
A) 1/100 m __________________
B) 1/1000 m __________________
C) 1000 m __________________
3. To convert 1.8 h to minutes, by what conversion factor should you multiply?
4. Solve each problem. Round your answer to the correct number of significant figures and include the proper unit(s).
A) 4.667 x 10^{4} g + 3.02 x 10^{5} g
B) (1.70 x 10^{2} J) / (5.922 x 10^{4} cm^{3})
5. What determines the precision of a measurement?
6. How does the last digit differ from the other digits in a measurement?
7. A car’s odometer measures the distance from home to school as 3.9 km. Using string on a map, you find the distance to be 4.2 km.
A) Which answer do you think is more accurate?
B) What does accurate mean?
8. Two students measure the speed of light. One obtains (3.001 ± 0.001) x 10^{8} m/s; the other obtains (2.999 ± 0.006) x 10^{8} m/s.
A) Which is more precise?
B) Which is more accurate? (You can find the speed of light in the back of your textbook.)
9. A graduated cylinder is marked every mL. How precise a measurement can you make with this instrument?
Problems: Solve each of the following problems. Show all work. Circle your answer expressed with the correct number of significant figures and units.
10. The length of a room is 16.40 m, its width is 4.5 m, and its height is 3.26 m. What volume does the room enclose?
11. The sides of a quadrangular plot of land are 132.68 m, 48.3 m, 132.736 m, and 48.37 m. What is the perimeter of the plot?
Assignment 1.3 – Graphing Data
Short Answer: Answer each question in the space provided. Write or print clearly. IF I CAN’T READ IT, IT’S WRONG.
1. How do you find the slope of a linear graph?
2. For a driver, the time between seeing a stoplight and stepping on the brakes is called reaction time. The distance traveled during this time is the reaction distance. Reaction distance for a given driver and vehicle depends linearly on speed.
A) Would the graph of reaction distance versus speed have a positive or negative slope?
B) A driver who is distracted has a longer reaction time that a drive who is not. Would the graph of reaction distance versus speed for a distracted driver have a larger or smaller slope that for a normal driver? Explain.
3. During a laboratory experiment, the temperature of the gas in a balloon is varied and the volume of the balloon is measured.
A) Which quantity is the independent variable?
B) Which quantity is the dependent variable?
4. What type of relationship is shown in the figure to the right? Give the general equation for this type of relationship.
5. Given the equation F = mv^{2} / R, what relationship exists between each of the following?
A) F and R
B) F and m
C) F and v
6. Suppose you receive $5.00 at the beginning of a week and spend $1.00 each day for lunch. You prepare a graph of the amount you have left at the end of each day for one week.
A) Would the slope of this graph be positive, negative, or zero?
B) Why?
7. Data are plotted on a graph, and the value on the yaxis is the same for each value of the independent variable.
A) What is the slope?
B) Why?
C) How does y depend on x?
8. The graph of braking distance versus car speed is part of a parabola. Thus, the equation is written d = av^{2} + bv + c. The distance, d, has units in meters, and velocity, v, has units in meters/second.
A) How could you find the units of a, b, and c?
B) What would they be?
9. The figure to the right shows the masses of three substances for volumes between 0 and 60 cm^{3}.
A) What is the mass of 30 cm^{3} of each substance?
B) If you had 100 g of each substance, what would be their volumes?
C) In one or two sentences, describe the meaning of the slopes of the lines in this graph.
D) What is the yintercept of each line? What does it mean?
Problems: Solve each of the following problems. Show all work. Circle your answer expressed with the correct number of significant figures and units.
10. During a class demonstration, a physics instructor placed a mass on a horizontal table that was nearly frictionless. The instructor then applied various horizontal forces to the mass and measured the distance it traveled in 5 second for each force applied. The results of the experiment are show in the table below.
Distance Traveled with Different Forces 

Force (kg·m/s^{2}) 
Distance (cm) 
5.0 
24 
10.0 
49 
15.0 
75 
20.0 
99 
25.0 
120 
30.0 
145 
A) Plot the values given in the table and draw the curve that best fits all points.
B) Describe the resulting curve.
C) Use the graph to write an equation relating the distance to the force.
D) What is the constant in the equation? Find its units.
E) Predict the distance traveled when a 22.0 kg·m/s^{2} force is exerted on the object for 5 seconds.
11. The physics instructor from the previous problem changed the procedure. The mass was varied while the force was kept constant. Time and distance were measured, and the acceleration of each mass was calculated. The results of the experiment are shown in the table below.
Acceleration of Different Masses 

Mass (kg) 
Acceleration (m/s^{2}) 
1.0 
12.0 
2.0 
5.9 
3.0 
4.1 
4.0 
3.0 
5.0 
2.5 
6.0 
2.0 
A) Plot the values given in the table and draw the curve that best fits all points.
B) Describe the resulting curve.
C) According to the graph, what is the relationship between mass and the acceleration produced by a constant force?
D) Write the equation relating acceleration to mass given by the data in the graph.
E) Find the units of the constant in the equation.
F) Predict the acceleration of an 8.0 kg mass.
12. During an experiment, a student measured the mass of 10.0 cm^{3} of alcohol. The student then measured the mass of 20.0 cm^{3} of alcohol. In this way, the data in the table below were collected.
The Mass Values of Specific Volumes of Alcohol 

Volume (cm^{3}) 
Mass (g) 
10.0 
7.9 
20.0 
15.8 
30.0 
23.7 
40.0 
21.6 
50.0 
39.6 
A) Plot a graph of the values given in the table and draw the curve that best fits all the points.
B) Describe the resulting curve.
C) Use the graph to write an equation relating the volume to the mass of the alcohol.
D) Find the units of the slope of the graph. What is the name given to this quantity?
E) What is the mass of 32.5 cm^{3} of alcohol?